Trust and Survival, AWOL Hunkpapa Indian Family Prisoners of War at Fort Sully, 1890-1891

Trust and Survival concerns a group of Sitting Bull’s people who fled the Standing Rock Indian Reservation after his murder on December 15, 1890.  Some of these people sought refuge with Spotted Elk/Big Foot on the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation.  Some found a certain degree of safety from further military conflict via the efforts of 2nd Lieutenant Harry Clay Hale and Captain Joseph Henry Hurst, 12the Infantry, the commanding officer of Fort Bennett.  On December 28th, 1890, Big Foot/Spotted Elk’s band peacefully submitted to the US. Military and went into camp for the night at Wounded Knee Creek. 

By the time of this post the Big Foot Memorial Riders will have arrived at Wounded Knee after nearly two weeks of travel in all weather.

The pdf file is via American Indian Quarterly which published “Trust and Survival” in 2008, 32.3 issue.



  1. Sam Russell said,

    December 1, 2015 at 8:21 pm

    Just read your 2008 article in AIQ. Very well researched and documented. Am pleased to add this to my ever growing library of material on Wounded Knee. Was unaware of this largely forgotten and rarely documented period of the Pine Ridge Campaign of Nov 1890–Jan 1891. I have a number of upcoming posts this month, one of which is on Lieut. Harry C. Hale.

    • May 2, 2016 at 4:18 pm

      Hello Sam Russell. Thank you for reading AIQ. Sorry for the long delay of a reply. Life happens. Will return the favor of your visit asap.

  2. CoolnWeird said,

    December 29, 2009 at 3:51 pm

    just wanted to greet you a HAPPY NEW YEAR!!

  3. Yousei Hime said,

    December 29, 2009 at 2:53 pm

    Thank you for sharing this. I feel as if I’ve reestablished a connection with my distant Indian heritage. I plan to build and maintain it, for it is precious to me and my identity. Thank you again.

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